Machine Presses

A machine press is a machine tool that creates or changes the shape of a workpiece by the application of pressure in manufacturing processes.
Machine presses can be mechanical, hydraulic or pneumatic and the type you choose depends on the material that you want to shape or cut.
Hydraulic Presses
Hydraulic presses rely on differences in fluid pressure. The fluid is pumped into a cylinder below the piston which causes the fluid pressure to increase under the piston. At the same time fluid is pumped out of the top channel causing the pressure above the piston to decrease.
A higher pressure of the fluid below the piston than the fluid above it causes the piston to rise. In the next step, fluid is pumped out from below the piston, causing the pressure under the piston to decrease. Simultaneously, fluid is pumped into the cylinder from the top, this increases the fluid pressure above the piston. A higher pressure of the fluid above the piston, than the fluid below it, moves the piston downward.
Typical application of a Hydraulic press
• Forging
• Moulding
• Clinching
• Blanking
• Punching
• Metal forming
• Deep drawing
Pneumatic Presses
Pneumatic presses depend on a pump to build air pressure in a reservoir, it is released as required to apply pressure. A pneumatic press can move faster and can perform several cycles. They have few moving parts which makes them low maintenance.
Typical applications of a Pneumatic press
• Riveting
• Punching
• Assembling
• Crimping
• Bending
• Press-fit
Mechanical Presses
Mechanical presses use mechanical leverage to form, shape or cut materials.
The mechanical press transforms the rotational force of a motor into a translational force vector that performs the pressing action. The mechanical press is faster than a hydraulic press. The application of force varies in both speed and magnitude throughout the distance of the stroke. When performing a manufacturing operation using a mechanical press, the correct range of the stroke is essential.
Typical applications of a Mechanical press
• Metal forging
• Sheet metal working

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